The Concept of Artificial Intelligence and its Applications
Artificial intelligence, abbreviated as AI is an extensive branch of computer science. It involves the building of smart machines that are capable of executing tasks that need human intelligence. AI is a science that is interdisciplinary and it has many approaches. The progressions in deep learning and machine learning have created a paradigm shift in many sectors of the tech industry. It is a science that has revolutionized many business sectors.
Machines are becoming capable; the tasks need intelligence. The capabilities of the modern machine are classified as AI. It includes many features like:
- understanding human speech,
- competing in strategic games,
- self-driving cars,
- military simulations, and
- Intelligent routing in delivery networks.
The working of Artificial Intelligence
The fundamental vision and goal of AI are based on the paper by Alan Turing called “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” (1950). AI, at the core, is a computer science branch to reply to the questions posed by Turing. His aim was to simulate or replicate human intelligence within machines.
AI’s extensive goal has given birth too many debates. But none of the definitions of AI is accepted universally. The main limitation in understanding AI is the building of intelligent machines. It doesn’t explain what artificial intelligence is. It also needs to explain what makes an intelligent machine.
The author Peter Norvig and Stuart Russell (writers of university text book on AI Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (AIMA) have unified their work around the intelligent agents within machines theme. There are 4 approaches within AI as defined below:
- Thinking humanly
- Acting humanly
- Thinking rationally
- Acting rationally
The idea of thinking humanly and thinking rationally is concerned with thought processes or reasoning. The acting humanly and acting rationally approach deals with behaviour.
The concepts of AI provide a blueprint for the infusion of machines and programs within machine learning and also in the other subsets of AI. It is a computer system that helps to perform tasks that need human intelligence. The AI is powered by machine learning, deep learning, and some other rules.
The Application of AI
- Narrow AI
This is also called Weak AI and this artificial intelligence works in a limited context. It is a simulation of the concept of human intelligence. Narrow AI often focuses on the performance of just one task extremely. Although the machines might seem to be intelligent, they are operating under higher constraints and more limitations than the basic form of human intelligence.
- Artificial General Intelligence
Also known as AGI, it is popularly termed as Strong AI. It is a type of artificial intelligence that creates AI that is used in movies. This is the next-generation AI that involves a machine that includes general intelligence. Thus, like a human being can apply intelligence to solve any type of problem.
Meaning of Narrow Artificial Intelligence
Narrow AI is everywhere around us. It includes the most fruitful understanding of artificial intelligence. It has its emphasis on the accomplishment of specific tasks. Narrow AI helped in many breakthroughs in several years of the last decade. They have many societal benefits that have contributed to the economic vitality of a nation.
Concept of Deep Learning and Machine Learning
The most part that is comprised in Narrow AI is power-driven by the innovations in deep learning and machine learning. It is important to understand the difference between machine learning, artificial intelligence, and deep learning.
Artificial intelligence involves a set of intelligence and algorithms that copy human intelligence. Machine learning is also a part of AI while deep learning is another of these techniques within machine learning.
If it is to be explained, then machine learning gives folder to computer data. It employs statistical techniques and this helps to learn the means to get better at tasks in a progressive manner. It doesn’t need to be programmed for a task. It eliminates the need for millions of lines of written code. Machine learning involves supervised learning that uses labelled data sets as well as unsupervised learning.
Artificial General Intelligence
A machine that has human-level intelligence is created and can be applied to many tasks. The AI technicians work in the quest for a universal learning algorithm. Over time it has reduced the difficulty of generating machines with many cognitive abilities. Artificial General Intelligence is a dystopian science that includes super-intelligent machines that will overrun humanity.